We can obtain groundwater from wells, springs and handpumps. Wells are holes that people dig or drill to obtain water. Springs are natural outlets from which groundwater ﬂows. Wells and springs are very good sources of water but must be treated with care if they are to last. To obtain water from wells, we must pump out water from it into pipes running into our taps. Rainwater harvesting is a good idea to make sure the well always has water by increasing the water table. Hand pumps are an economical solution for providing supply of water in rural and suburban areas. They also help to eliminate the risks of people falling into open wells.
Preventing Water Wastage
Water wastage is a serious problem in our daily lives. You can prevent water wastage by watering outdoor plants at dawn or dusk when evaporation is minimal, switching off taps when not using them, washing a full machine load of clothes instead of two half loads and don’t have a shower for more than 3 minutes.
Recycling water, reusing wastewater or reclaiming water is a vital part of water conservation. For instance, we could water the plants with the water used for washing vegetables. Washing all your vegetables together is also a good idea. Japan reuses water in a very good way. There, the water used in the wash basin is redirected into the toilet and is used for flushing.
Alternative arrangement for sewage disposal
In the present day world, sewage disposal is a long process which consumes a lot of water. Chemical toilets are a recent advancement . They do not require much water and are environment friendly. There are different types of sewage systems. An on-site system is one which treats the sewage in a septic tank so that most of the sewage becomes effluent and is disposed off in an area close to the house or buildings. A sewage or wastewater system disposes of the effluent from a community at a central place usually called a sewage lagoon or effluent pond. The sewage can be treated in a septic tank at each building just before disposal, or in the lagoon itself. A composting toilet is a type of toilet leads to the decomposition of human excreta, turning it into compost. It is carried out with the assistance of bacteria and fungi. This compost can be used to enrich the soil Most composting toilets use no water and are therefore dry toilets
Adopting Better sanitation practices
Water is a basic necessity, and an important resource for sustaining life. The decline in water quality endangers the health of humans. The WHO estimates that 3.575 million people die from water-related diseases a year. Developing good sanitation and hygiene prevents infection. We should promote good hygiene habits through education. UNICEF and WHO have a joint initiative known as WASH, which stands for Water, Sanitation and Hygiene. Simple practices like filtering water before consumption, ensuring an easy access to sanitized toilets, washing hands before eating etc not only contribute to our health but also impacts positively on our environment.
Image Credit: By George Chernilevsky – Own work, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=40454709